The word “bibliography” literally means: a writing of books. In academic writing it is a list of works that were referenced or quoted in the text and it usually appears at the end of the text. Depending on what topic you are writing about, you might need to use a specific format your bibliographic entries. The most common formats are standardized by the Modern Language Association (MLA), the American Psychological Association (APA), and the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS).

Your instructor will usually designate one of these styles for each assignment, but MLA and CMS are generally used for most types of basic research writing and the APA is used for humanities research.

Here are examples of citations for online articles:

MLA: Brooks, Alan. “Bibliography.” 11trees, 20 Jan. 2019,

CMS: Brooks, Alan. “Bibliography.” 11trees. January 20, 2019.

APA: Brooks, A. (2019, January 20). Bibliography. Retrieved from

There are, of course, many more types of sources, each with its own particular format. Fortunately, there are several citation tools available online to assist you.